Below are the most common used abbreviations to works cited in our catalogues and online descriptions. The list will be continuously updated.


Adda = Haim Gitler & Gil Gambash, eds. Faces of Power: Roman Gold Coins from the Victor A. Adda Collection. Jerusalem, 2017.

AJN = American Journal of Numismatics.

Anokhin = Vladilen A. Anokhin. Античные Монеты Северного Причерноморья (Ancient Coins of the Northern Black Sea Coast). Kiev, 2011.

Bahrfeldt = M. v. Bahrfeldt. Die Römische Goldmünzen prägung während der Republik und unter Augustus. Halle, 1923.

BCD Boiotia = The BCD Collection of the Coinage of Boiotia. CNG Triton IX Auction, Session 1, 10 January 2006.

Bellinger, Philippi = Bellinger, “Philippi in Macedonia” in ANS Museum Notes 11 (1964), pp. 29-52.

Berk, 100 Greatest = Harlan J. Berk, 100 Greatest Ancient Coins. Whitman Publishing, 2008.

Betlyon = J.W. Betlyon. The Coinage and Mints of Phoenicia. The Pre-Alexandrine Period (Harvard Semitic Monographs, Vol. 26). Chico, CA, 1982.

BMC = Catalogue of Greek Coins in the British Museum, 29 Vols. London, 1873-1927.

Bodenstedt = F. Bodenstedt. Die Elektronmünzen von Phokaia und Mytilene. Tübingen, 1981.

Boehringer, Leontini = Christoph Boehringer. “Die Münzgeschichte von Leontini in klassischer Zeit”, in Studies in Greek Numismatics in Memory of Martin Jessop Price (London, 1998), pp. 43-53.

Boston MFA = Agnes B. Brett. Catalogue of Greek Coins, Boston Museum of Fine Arts. Boston, 1955.

Calciati, Pegasi = Romolo Calciati. Pegasi. Mortara, 1990.

Calicó = X. & F. Calicó. Catálogo de monedas antiguas de hispania. Barcelona, 1979.

Caltabiano, Monetazione = Maria Caccamo Caltabiano. La monetazione di Messana con le emissioni di Rhegion dell’etaa’ della Tirannide. Berlin, 1993

Carradice = I. Carradice. Coinage and Administration in the Athenian and Persian Empires (British Archaeological Reports 343). Oxford. 1987.

CPE = Catharine C. Lorber. Coins of the Ptolemaic Empire. 2 vols. New York, 2018.

Crawford = Michael H. Crawford. Roman Republican coinage. Cambridge, 1994.

DCA = Edward Cohen. Dated Coins of Antiquity: A comprehensive catalogue of the coins and how their numbers came about. Lancaster, 2011.

DCA Tyre Supplement Release 2 = Edward Cohen. Dated Coins of Antiquity: Shekels of Tyre Supplemental Photographs (Release 2). Lancaster, 2014.

Desneux, Akanthos = Jules Desneux. “Les tétradrachmes d’Akanthos” in Revue Belge de Numismatique 95 (1949), pp. 5-122, 38 pls.

Dewing = Leo Mildenberg & Silvia M. Hurter. The Dewing Collection of Greek Coins (ACNAC 6). New York, 1985.

Elayi & Elayi – J. Elayi & A.G. Elayi. A Monetary and Political History of the Phoenician City of Byblos in the Fifth and Fourth Centuries B.C.E. Winona Lake, 2014.

ESM = Edward T. Newell & Otto Mørkholm. The Coinage of the Eastern Seleucid Mints from Seleucus I to Antiochus III / with a summary of recent scholarship, additions and corrections by Otto Mørkholm. New York, 1978.

Fischer-Bossert, Chronologie = Wolfgang Fischer-Bossert. Chronologie der Didrachmenprägung von Tarent, 510-280 v. Chr. Berlin 1999.

Fischer-Bossert, Coins, Artists, and Tyrants = Wolfgang Fischer-Bossert. Coins, Artists, and Tyrants: Syracuse in the Time of the Peloponnesian War. New York, 2017.

Fischer-Bossert, Phanes = Wolfgang Fischer Bossert. “Phanes: A Die Study” in White Gold, pp. 423-476.

Frolova & Ireland = Nina Frolova & Stanley Ireland. The coinage of the Bosporan Kingdom : from the first century BC to the middle of the first century AD. Oxford, 2002.

Greenwell = William Greenwell. The Electrum Coinage of Cyzicus. London, 1887.

Gulbenkian = E.S.G. Robinson, et al. A Catalogue of the Calouste Gulbenkian Collection of Greek Coins, 2 Parts. Lisbon, 1971, 1990.

Hendin = David Hendin. Guide to Biblical Coins, 5th edition. New York, 2010.

HGC = Oliver D. Hoover. The Handbook of Greek Coinage. Various volumes. Lancaster, 2009 – present.

Ierardi = Michael Ierardi. “Tetradrachms of Agathocles of Syracuse” in AJN 7-8 (1995-96), pp. 1-73.

Jenkins, The Coinage of Gela = G. K. Jenkins. The Coinage of Gela. Berlin, 1970.

Jenkins, Coins of Punic Sicily = G. K. Jenkins. Coins of Punic Sicily (Reprinted, with additions and corrections, from SNR 50, 53, 56, and 57.). Zurich, 1997.

Jenkins & Lewis = G. K. Jenkins & R. B. Lewis. Carthaginian Gold and Electrum Coins. London, 1963.

Kraay, Archaic and Classical = Colin M. Kraay. Archaic and Classical Greek Coins. Berkeley, 1976.

Kraay & Hirmer = Colin M. Kraay & Max Hirmer. Greek Coins. New York, 1966.

Kroll = John H. Kroll. The Greek Coins (The Athenian Agora, vol. XXVI). Princeton, 1993.

Le Rider = Georges Le Rider. Le monnayage d’argent et d’or de Philippe II frappé en Macédoine de 359 a 294. Paris 1977.

Le Rider, Crétoises = Georges Le Rider. Monnaies crétoises du Ve au Ier siècle av. J.-C. Paris, 1966.

Marinescu = Constantin A. Marinescu. Making and Spending Money along the Bosporus.: the Lysimachi Coinages Minted by Byzantium and Chalcedon and their Socio-Cultural Context. Columbia University Dissertation, 1996.

Marinescu, Cius = Constantin A. Marinescu. “Lysimachi Coinage of Cius, Bithynia,” in Ex Nummis Lux, Studies in Ancient Numismatics in Honour of Dimitar Draganov, pp. 177-220.

MacDonald, Bosporus = David MacDonald. An Introduction to the History and Coinage of the Kingdom of the Bosporus. Lancaster, 2005.

McAlee = Richard McAlee. The Coins of Roman Antioch. Lancaster, 2007.

Meadows, Administration = AndrewR. Meadows. “The Administration of the Achaemenid Empire” in J.E. Curtis & N. Tallis, Forgotten Empire: The World of Ancient Persia (Berkeley, 2005), pp. 181-209.

Natwoka = Krzystof Natwoka. “Asander of the Bosporus : His Coinage and Chronology” in AJN 3-4 (1992), pp. 21-48.

Noe, The Coinage of Caulonia = Sydney P. Noe. The Coinage of Caulonia. New York, 1958.

Noe, The Coinage of Metapontum = Sydney P. Noe. The coinage of Metapontum. Parts 1 and 2 / with additions and corrections by Ann Johnston. New York, 1984.

Olivier & Lorber = Julien Olivier & Catharein Lorber. “Three gold coinages of third-century Ptolemaic Egypt” in Revue Belge de Numismatique 159 (2013), pp. 49-150.

Pella = online database at:

Pozzi = Naville Co. Monnaies grecques antiques S. Pozzi. Auction 1 (4 April 1921). Geneva.

Price = Martin Price. The Coinage in the Name of Alexander the Great and Philip Arrhidaeus. Zurich / London, 1993.

Prieur = Michel Prieur. A Type Corpus of The Syro-Phoenician Tetradrachms and Their Fractions from 57 BC to AD 253. Lancaster, 2000.

RIC = Harold Mattingly and others. The Roman Imperial Coinage. Various volumes, 1928-present.

RPC = Various authors. Roman Provincial Coinage. 3 Vols in 5 parts. London and Paris, 1992-2006.

RPC Online = online database at:

SC = Arthur Houghton, Catharine Lorber, Oliver Hoover. Seleucid Coins: A Comprehensive Catalog. Lancaster, 2002, 2008

Scheu = Frederick Scheu. “Silver and Gold Coins of the Bruttians,” NC 1962, pp. 43-63.

Sear, Byzantine = David Sear et al. Byzantine Coins and Their Values, 2nd edition. London, 1987.

Seltman = Charles T. Seltman. Athens, its History and Coinage before the Persian Invasion. Cambridge, 1924.

SNG ANS = Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum. American Numsimatic Society. Various volumes, 1969-present.

SNG BM Black Sea = Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Great Britain, Volume IX, British Museum, Part 1: The Black Sea. London, 1993.

SNG Copenhagen = Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Danish National Museum. Copenhagen, 1942-1979.

SNG Kayhan = Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Turkey 1: The Muharrem Kayhan Collection, 2 vols. Istanbul, 2002 and 2015.

SNG Lockett = Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Great Britain, Volume III, Lockett Collection. London, 1938-1949.

SNG Munich = Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum (Deutschland), Staatlich Münzsammlung München. Various volumes, 1968-present.

SNG Stancomb = Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Great Britain, Volume XI, The William Stancomb Collection of Coins of the Black Sea Region. Oxford 2000.

SNG von Aulock = Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Sammlung Hans Von Aulock. Berlin, 1957-1968.

Starr = Chester G. Starr. Athenian Coinage 480-449 BC. London, 1970.

Svoronos = Ioannes H. Svoronos. Ta nomismata tou kratous ton Ptolemaion (Ptolemaic Coinage). Athens, 1904.

Sydenham = Edward A. Sydenham. The coinage of the Roman Republic. London, 1952.

Thompson = Margaret Thompson. “The Mints of Lysimachus,” in Colin M. Kraay & G. K Jenkins, eds. Essays in Greek coinage presented to Stanley Robinson (Oxford, 1968), pp. 163-182, pls. 16-22.

Thompson, New Style = Margaret Thompson. The New Style Silver Coinage of Athens. New York, 1961.

Vecchi, Etruscan Coinage = Italo Vecchi. Etruscan Coinage. Milan, 2012.

Vecchi, The Coinage of the Rasna = Italo Vecchi. The Coinage of the Rasna. Parts I-V, in SNR 67 (1988), 69 (1990), 71 (1992), 72 (1993), and 78 (1999).

Vlasto = Oscar Ravel. Descriptive catalogue of the collection of Tarentine coins formed by M. P. Vlasto. London, 1947.

Von Fritze, Kyzikus = Hans Von Fritze. Die elektronprägung von Kyzikos : ein chronologische studie. (Nomisma VII), 1912.

Von Kaenel = Hans-Markus von Kaenel. Münzprägung und Münzbildnis des Claudius (AMUGS XI). Berlin, 1986.

Weidauer = Liselotte Weidauer. Probleme de Frühen Elektronprägung. Fribourg, 1975.

Westermark, Akragas = Ulla Westermark. The Coinage of Akragas c. 510–406 BC. Uppsala, 2018.

White Gold = Peter van Alfen & Ute Wartenberg, eds. White Gold : Studies in Early Electrum Coinage. New York, 2017.

WSM = Edward T. Newell & Otto Mørkholm. The coinage of the western Seleucid mints from Seleucus I to Antiochus III / with a summary of recent scholarship by Otto Mørkholm. New York, 1977.